A printed circuit board (PCB) functions as an electronic circuit for mounting and connecting electronic components such as capacitors and ICs. They are generally made of an insulating glassfiber board laminated with copper foil. In addition to traditional multilayer boards consisting of two or more boards stacked on top of each other, buildup boards manufactured by forming one insulating layer and circuit pattern at a time on an insulating board, and building up the conductive layers by connecting layers together have become the mainstream. As electronic devices have become more advanced, the miniaturization and increased density of circuit patterns on PCB has accelerated.

PCB Production Process

Pattern Design / Data Editing

The design data for circuit and solder resist (circuit protection resin) patterns is created using a CAM system. That pattern data is edited and treated for use according to the process and application.

● Integrated CAM System CU-9000

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Circuit Formation

Photoresist is applied to the surface of an insulating board coated with copper foil in order to form the circuit pattern.

Direct Exposure

Direct Pattern Exposure

flow_01.jpgThe circuit pattern is directly exposed onto the surface of a board coated with photoresist, without using a photomask, in accord with the CAM data.

● Direct Imaging System Ledia

With Photomask

Photomask Creation

flow_02.jpgA circuit pattern is formed on film or glass to create an exposure photomask.

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Photomask Inspection

flow_03.jpgPhotomask expansion and contraction, and the width of the lines in its circuit pattern, are measured and inspected for defects.

● Automatic Optical Photomask Inspection System MI-9700
● Automatic Optical Inspection System PI-9400

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Pattern Exposure

flow_04.jpgThe circuit pattern is exposed through a photomask onto the surface of a board coated with photoresist.

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Developing, Etching & Stripping

flow_07.jpgAfter the circuit pattern is developed, the copper foil is etched with acid and the unnecessary photoresist is stripped off.

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Layering

When forming a complex circuit, multiple conductive layers are connected together and wired three dimensionally. Generally, the method differs depending upon the required wiring density.

Buildup Boards

Layering

flow_06.jpgThe board, on which the circuit was formed, is coated with non-conducting film and a laser is used to drill holes. After the surface of the board is then plated with copper to make the layers conductive, photoresist is applied and circuit formation is repeated.

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Inspection

Formed circuits are inspected each time for defects, appearance and conductivity, and the results are fed back to previous processes. The processes following non-conducting film coating are repeated to form the multiple layers.

● Automatic Optical Inspection System ​​​​​​​
PI-9700PI-9200FPI-9200HPI-9200SPI-9400
● Defect Tabulation Software​​​​​​​ Sentflow

 

Multilayer Boards

Inner layer inspection

flow_08.jpgCircuits formed on the inner layers of the PCB (the boards that are covered by other boards) are inspected for defects, appearance and conductivity, and the results are fed back to previous processes.

● Automatic Optical Inspection System ​​​​​
PI-9700PI-9200FPI-9200HPI-9200SPI-9400
● Defect Tabulation Software​​​​​​​ Sentflow

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Outer layer inspection

flow_09.jpgCircuits formed on the outer layers of the PCB (the outermost boards when stacked) are inspected for defects, appearance and conductivity, and the results are fed back to previous processes.
● Automatic Optical Inspection Systems​​​​​​​
PI-9700PI-9200FPI-9200HPI-9200SPI-9400
● Defect Tabulation Software​​​​​​​ Sentflow

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Layering

flow_05.jpgMultiple boards are stacked on top of each other, and heat and pressure is applied with a press to bind them together. After that, holes are drilled and plated with copper to make them conductive.

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Solder Resist Formation​​​​​​​

flow_10.jpgAfter layering the boards, the surface is coated with solder resist to protect areas of the circuit other than those used to mount components.

Direct Exposure​​​​​​​

 

Direct Pattern Exposure

flow_11.jpgThe solder resist pattern is directly exposed onto the surface of a board coated with solder resist, without using a photomask, in accord with the CAM data.

● Direct Imaging System​​​​​​​ Ledia

With Photomask​​​​​​​

Photomask Creation

A solder resist pattern is formed on film to create an exposure photomask.

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Photomask Inspection
Photomask expansion and contraction is measured and the solder resist pattern on the photomask inspected for defects.


● Automatic Optical Photomask Inspection System​​​​​​​ MI-9700

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Pattern Exposure

The solder resist pattern is exposed through a photomask onto the surface of a board coated with solder resist.

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Developing & Curing​​​​​​​

flow_14.jpgThe solder resist pattern is developed and the surface is cured through irradiation and heating with ultraviolet rays.

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Solder Resist Inspection​​​​​​​

The solder resist formed on the surface of the board is inspected for defects and appearance, and repaired as necessary.

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Metallic Coating & External Processing​​​​​​​

A metallic coating is applied to the board so that electronic components can be properly mounted. The board is then cut into its final sizes.

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Final Inspection​​​​​​​

flow_12.jpgThe final boards are inspected for defects, appearance and conductivity prior to mounting the electronic components.

● Automatic Final Visual Inspection System​​​​​​​ FP-9000