A liquid crystal display, which is the most typical kind of flat panel display (FPD), consists of two sheets of glass (10.5th generation substrates are 2,940 x 3,370 mm in size) separated by a 5 μm gap containing liquid crystals (solid or liquid intermediate material with crystalline properties) through which an image can be projected by applying an electric current to the liquid crystals to control the passage of light. This technology takes advantage of the properties of liquid crystals that enable them to both maintain the same orientation with respect to each other and change orientation when a voltage is applied. A large part of the process of creating a liquid crystal display is the formation of the circuits on the glass substrate.

Array processing
 
Color filter processing
Glass substrates, which will serve as the base material, are cleaned to remove adhered micron-sized particles (dust) and organic residues.
Cleaning
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Glass substrates, which will serve as the base material, are cleaned to remove adhered micron-sized particles (dust) and organic residues.
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Layers of the material that will become the circuit material are formed (deposited) as thin films on the glass substrates.
Film Deposition
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Measure the characteristics of the films, controling the quality of the previous step.
Measurement
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Resist (photosensitive chemical) is dispensed from the slit nozzle to uniformly coat the glass substrates.
Resist Coating
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Black or color resist (photosensitive chemical) is dispensed from the slit nozzle to uniformly coat the glass substrates.
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Measure the film thickness etc., controling the quality of the previous step.
Measurement
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Light is projected onto the substrates to expose the circuit pattern. Only the areas of the resist layer that are exposed to the light undergo a structural change.
Exposure
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Light is projected onto the substrates to expose the color filter pattern. With the black resist layer, only the areas exposed to the light undergo a structural change. Conversely, with the color resist layer, only the areas not exposed to the light change.
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The areas that were exposed to the light are dissolved to reveal the thin film.
Development
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The areas that were respectively either exposed or not exposed to the light are dissolved to reveal the pattern.
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Measure the film thickness etc., controling the quality of the previous step.
Measurement
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The thin film not covered with resist is dissolved and removed to form the transistor circuit.
Etching
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The resist layer is stripped off as it is no longer needed for masking.
Resist Stripping
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The space between the substrates forming the transistor circuit and color filter pattern is filled with liquid crystal material. Next, the light polarizers and then the backlights are added to complete the liquid crystal display.
Crystal Filling and Assembly
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